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Matthew Wright
Matthew Wright

Pharmacognosy 2

Pharmacognosy is the study of crude drugs obtained from medicinal plants, animals, fungi, and other natural sources.[1] The American Society of Pharmacognosy defines pharmacognosy as "the study of the physical, chemical, biochemical, and biological properties of drugs, drug substances, or potential drugs or drug substances of natural origin as well as the search for new drugs from natural sources".[2]

Pharmacognosy 2

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The word "pharmacognosy" is derived from two Greek words: φάρμακον, pharmakon (drug), and γνῶσις gnosis (knowledge) or the Latin verb cognosco (con, 'with', and , 'know'; itself a cognate of the Greek verb γι(γ)νώσκω, gi(g)nósko, meaning 'I know, perceive'),[3] meaning 'to conceptualize' or 'to recognize'.[4]

The term "pharmacognosy" was used for the first time by the German physician Johann Adam Schmidt (1759-1809) in their published book "Grundriss der Materia Medica" in 1811 and by Anotheus Seydler in 1815 in a work titled Analecta Pharmacognostica.

As late as the beginning of the 20th century, the subject had developed mainly on the botanical side, being particularly concerned with the description and identification of drugs both in their whole state and in powder form. Such branches of pharmacognosy are still of fundamental importance, particularly for botanical products (widely available as dietary supplements in the U.S., natural health products in Canada), quality control purposes, pharmacopoeial protocols and related health regulatory frameworks. At the same time, development in other areas of research has enormously expanded the subject. The advent of the 21st century brought a renaissance of pharmacognosy and its conventional botanical approach has been broadened up to molecular and metabolomic levels.[5]

In addition to the previously mentioned definition, the American Society of Pharmacognosy also defines pharmacognosy as "the study of natural product molecules (typically secondary metabolites) that are useful for their medicinal, ecological, gustatory, or other functional properties."[6] Similarly, the mission of the Pharmacognosy Institute at the University of Illinois at Chicago involves plant-based and plant-related natural health products for the benefit of human health.[7] Other definitions are more encompassing, drawing on a broad spectrum of biological subjects, including botany, ethnobotany, marine biology, microbiology, herbal medicine, chemistry, biotechnology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmaceutics, clinical pharmacy, and pharmacy practice.

1. Györgyi Horváth: Drug reactions in Pharmacognosy, teaching supplement for the pharmacognosy practices, University of Pécs, Department of Pharmacognosy, Pécs, 2011. 2. Györgyi Horváth, Péter Molnár, Tímea Bencsik: Pharmacognosy 2, digital learning material, 2014.Course materials will be available on Neptun.

It is a peer reviewed journal aiming to publish high quality original research articles, methods, techniques and evaluation reports, critical reviews, short communications, commentaries and editorials of all aspects of medicinal plant research. The journal is aimed at a broad readership, publishing articles on all aspects of pharmacognosy, and related fields. The journal aims to increase understanding of pharmacognosy as well as to direct and foster further research through the dissemination of scientific information by the publication of manuscripts. The submissions of original contributions in all areas of pharmacognosy are welcome.

Pharmacognosy is a science which is one of the basic disciplines of pharmacy and it researches drugs derived from natural sources. The studies in this field usually focus on traditional uses of plants, medicines derived from plants, various types of organisms (bacteria, fungi ect.) and recently marine organisms. The main topics of the pharmacognostical studies are natural product drug discovery, biological activities of the substances obtained from natural sources, herb-drug interactions and phytotherapy. It can be said that pharmacognosy is closely related to botany, plant chemistry, microbiology and pharmacology. Today pharmacognosy can be divided three main fields; ethnopharmacognosy, phytotherapy and phytochemistry.

Pharmacognosy being one of the disciplines of pharmacy aims to develop a clear understanding of natural products (found in plants,fungi,marine organism and others) that are used therapeutically in medicine (course contents,Introduction to pharmacognosy, chemistry of medicinal plants, carbohydrates, glycosides, tannins, lipids, plant enzymes)

The term "pharmacognosy" was coined by Anotheus Seydler, a German botanist, from the two Greek words "pharmakon", meaning drug or medicine, and "gnosis", meaning knowledge. Even today, about a quarter of all prescription drugs in the United States have one or more bioactive compounds derived from plants.

According to the American Society of Pharmacognosy, the definition of pharmacognosy is "the study of the physical, chemical, biochemical, and biological properties of drugs, drug substances or potential drugs or drug substances of natural origin, as well as the search for new drugs from natural sources."

Pharmacognosy involves botanical knowledge to classify and name the plant and understand its genetic pattern and its cultivation. Chemical knowledge is also important in this field for isolating, identifying, and quantitatively assessing the bioactive compounds in the plant sources. Finally, pharmacology plays a role in pharmacognosy, as it allows for researchers to detect and evaluate the biological properties of plants and determine their effects on living systems.

Traditionally, pharmacognosy was recognized as a vital part of drug development processes and pharmacy education; however, the advent of new miracle drugs that can be synthesized in the laboratory led to a decline in its practice.

The respect for ancient wisdom is reflected in the form of phytotherapy and phytopharmaceuticals. The use of plant products to treat illnesses is well known in South American nations, China and India, where billions of dollars are spent on pharmacognosy research to identify and market natural medicinal drugs.

The M.S. in pharmaceutical sciences can be completed with an emphasis inenvironmental toxicology, industrial pharmacy, medicinal chemistry,pharmaceutics, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, or pharmacy administration. 041b061a72


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